Electron-beam lithography (abbreviated as e-beam lithography, EBL) is defined as the process of scanning a focused beam of electrons to display custom shapes on a surface having a covering of an electron-sensitive film called a resist.
EBL is known for its special technique for the creation of extremely small fine patterns (can’t be seen from the naked eye) applied usually in modern electronics applications for integrated circuits. This Electron Lithography System is more suited to create exclusively the high-resolute patterns, or some unique patterns for which the other process such as the creation of photomask is very much time consuming.
The Electron Lithography System works on a principle that is somewhat related to photolithography. When the focused beam of electrons scanned over a surface called resist. It changes its solubility properties in accordance with the energy deposited with the electronic beam.
The very first electron beam lithography, machines based on scanning of electrons on a surface was developed in the 1960s.
Electron Beam Lithography companies sell hundreds of electron beam products to various research centers, laboratories, National laboratories, Research Universities and industries.
Elionix, Electronic Beam Lithographic company from 1975 has been manufacturing, installing, and servicing Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) systems. Elionix has sold over 400 EBL systems to research institutes and industrial customers. The tools by Elionix electron beam lithography are well known for ultra-high precision to fabricate small nano-structures, high speed for production lines, excellent reliability, small footprint, and low cost of ownership.
Elionix partners with STS that deliver state-of-the-art nanotechnology products throughout North America and Europe. The Elionix electron beam lithography (EBL) system fulfils the customer demands for finer lines and writing speeds. This company has resulted in providing the world’s first 150kV EBL system for research as well as the world’s first 400MHz beam deflection system on production of EBL tools.
EMTech Solutions (STS), incorporated with Elionix in 2000, has sold hundreds of electron beam products to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) industry. The main emphasis of the company is the regeneration and services of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) globally. The professionals are determined to work for North America and Europe, and have customers which includes 500 companies, major research institutes, and technology driven start-ups.
A good amount of research tools such as ELS-F-150, ELS-F-125, ELS-G-100, ELS-S50EX is provided by the company. The company also some of the production tools such as ELS-HS50, ELF-10000.
Electron-beam technology has provided the basis for a variety of novel and specialized applications from the mid-20th century. Electron Beam Lithography is one of them.
Electron-beam machining is considered as a process in which electrons with high velocity are focused into a narrow beam with a very high planar power density. The cross-sectional beam is then focused and directed toward the aimed material, resulting in heat and vaporization of material. Electron-beam machines can be used to give accurate cut over metals. The resulting surface finish is better than other thermal cutting processes. The use of this technology is limited to high-value products due to high equipment costs.
The electron beam lithography system is produced by a very finely focused electron beam that creates micro-structures in the resist that can be transferred to the substrate material, via etching. It is developed for manufacturing integrated circuits. Electron beams are used in Electron lithographs with diameters starting from two nanometers up to hundreds of nanometers. There are many equipment’s, technologies, etc., that are the results of electron beam technologies.
The electron microscope that is used as a controlled beam of electrons in order to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image is the result of electron beam technology.
In electron beam lithography resolution, the resolution is primarily set by the electronic beam. This is further depending on the range of electron interaction phenomena forming the custom designs. The Electron beams can produce structures of 1 nm in size and useful devices with minimal features of about 20 nm. The electronic beam can be as small as 0.5 nm. All useful devices have an ultimate resolution of about 10 nm. 10 nm is the direct resolution of materials such as AlF 3 and Al 2 O 3; 1-nm structures. In the processes where the intermediate patterned layers are used, made by the direct modification of the electrical properties of conductors, semiconductors, or superconductors by means of high-energy electron bombardment. In these cases, no type of fabrication process is used, this would further reach dimensions comparable to the beam diameter.
The electronic beam lithography company provides help to the optical lenses companies and is also used for certain biological purposes.
The Electron Beam Melting technology also the part of lithography is also used in the metallurgy companies to melt the metals and then fuse them to get the required metal formation.
Electron Beam Lithography companies are working for the multipurpose ranges of various electron beam technologies used in various types of Electron Beam Lithography.
In order to increase the development of multiple electron beam approaches towards lithography many companies like SEMTECH, Multibeam Corporation, Mapper, IMS Nanofabrication.